The Importance of Reading

If we asked a teenager, how many hours he spends in the day on the Internet, especially in Social Networks, we would be surprised. And if we asked him how many books he has read so far this year, we would also be surprised.
Surely he has spent half of the day socializing on his computer, but he has hardly finished a novel since January 2012 until now. Or throughout his life.
However, perhaps it has never been so important to know how to read and understand what is read as in this era; in which information flows rapidly and requires an almost immediate understanding.
Who does not know how to analyze a text today, can hardly make good use of New Technologies, in what comprises a rational and consistent use of them.
And I would venture to say: The current society, the society of the 21st century is the society of Reading.
We can say that Reading is the most effective means for acquiring knowledge as it enriches our vision of reality, intensifies our logical and creative thinking, and facilitates the capacity for expression.
It plays a fundamental role in increasing our intellectual capacity and, therefore, our development as an independent human being.
Reading is equivalent to thinking, just as knowing how to read means being able to identify the basic ideas of a text, grasp the most relevant details and provide critical judgment about what is being read.
In short, reading involves reasoning, creating, dreaming and becoming more tolerant and respectful of each other’s differences, it consists in learning to observe society from a new, more objective point of view, away from prejudices and contradictory ideas. reality.
Developing a taste for reading, as well as encouraging the people around us to read should be a challenge that each of us should consider.
The democratic societies in which we live demand increasingly more thinking citizens and free of archaic and dangerous ideas that could harm their good functioning.

We must make reading a permanent habit, converting the act of reading into a pleasant, rewarding and shared moment.
Unquestionably, not knowing how to read in the technological society in which we live can only lead to social, cultural, political and economic exclusion; or what is worse, to an absolute banishment from the main areas in which most of the members of the society of which we are a part move.
If we want to be the owners of the New Technologies and not only their slaves, we only have one way: Learn to read and understand what we have read.
That is the main challenge that we all have today.
The importance of language is increasingly valued in modern societies. This is because it not only defines the human being, but also facilitates and perfects human relationships in themselves and the context that surrounds them.
Reading is the true path to knowledge and freedom, since it allows us to travel along the paths of time and space, as well as to know and understand different societies and their cultures.
In children, reading not only entertains and develops their vocabulary, but also encourages their imagination, increases academic and daily life knowledge, and facilitates interaction with other members of society.
In the document “Towards Societies of Knowledge” (Unesco, 2005), it is proposed that from a society as highly technological as the one we live in, both writing and accounting should be omnipresent and indispensable elements for daily life and the exercise of the citizenship.
Knowing how to read is one of the pillars for the acquisition and transmission of knowledge in our daily lives, but also in the academic world. It is important that children acquire and train this skill since they are small, because as the academic progress is made, the level of demand increases, which demands greater reading and writing skills.
Reading is one of the ways to access knowledge but it is also an activity that is involved in most activities of our daily life: Knowing how to read the prices of things, knowing how to read the signs or rules of the places to which we go, understand contracts, invoices and documents in general, access to the knowledge transmitted to us by books and stories told by novels .
The reading domain, writing and elementary calculus remain the primary objectives for “Learning to Learn” and develop increasingly as autonomous beings, and not dependent on any government or ideology of the day.
It is good for children to read; this everyone knows. In fact, there are many programs to promote reading that encourage children to start reading very soon. The key question is why it is good for children to read and why it is good that they do so as soon as possible.
That children start reading between 2 and 5 years (which is what we can consider as early ages) has many benefits, beyond preparing children for primary school.


Cryogenization is the object of cryonics science. The origin of this word is to be found in the Greek kryos whose meaning is cold. Cryogenization is a method by which a person (or animal) is subjected to conditions of intense cold in order to preserve their body in conditions to be reanimated in the future. The correct term for this process is cryopreservation.
Currently cryogenization is not a reversible process and can only be applied to people who have been declared legally dead (clinical death). So far it has not been able to repair the damage that occurs at the molecular level in the tissues produced by the process of freezing and ischemia. The nanorreparación, or repair at the molecular level, is subject to the advance of nanotechnology and nanomedicine and we can be talking about decades or centuries seen.
On this neuro-psychological and biological predisposition of the human being, the so-called cryogenization is born, understood as the technique that allows to maintain a legally dead body, both human and animal, under conditions of quasi-freezing so that at an “opportune moment” “, Can be revived with the hope that he will start a new life, possibly, eliminating or greatly attenuating the causes that caused his past death. In fact, cryogenization has as its primary objective to win the game over time, and with this, allow science to advance and discover the “cure” of multiple evils, while those who suffered and perished for them, wait in a state of conservation through extreme cold. Etymologically, cryogenization has its roots in the Greek term criónica, which means cryopreservation, that is, to avoid the progressive wearing down of a lifeless organism, from the legal point of view but not biological.
The main argument on which the cryogenicists are based to defend the possible success of the test, is that they would be able to maintain the vital functions of the cerebral biological structure, considered as the most relevant for the resuscitation instance. They add that this is achieved by administering and causing the transit and accumulation of large concentrations of cryoprotectants, which would be enough to protect the brain structure from injuries that inevitably occur in a state of natural death. The preservation of brain areas that contain memory, personality and identity are essential so that, if the intended resuscitation materializes, that human being remains this and not a vegetable. For this reason, it is vital for cryogenicists to be on permanent guard and keep away the possibility of the so-called “theoretical death of information”. This death would imply the destruction of the human hard disk, without which it would be impossible to aspire to any hope of “resuscitation”.
Cryogenization can be carried out in two different ways:


-Full body: The person without life is introduced into the tube Dewar and is subjected to liquid nitrogen allowing it to act as a preservative throughout the body and long term (referring to years).
-neuro-preservation: only the brain of the patient separated from the rest of the body is subjected to the process of cryogenization. Advocates of this option argue that, in addition to being the vital part to preserve as explained above, it is cheaper and easier to transfer.
Of course, as everything that concerns and surrounds cryogenization, this second option has also generated reactions and debates between detractors and defenders.
Deepening in the previous thing, it is necessary to say that the neuro-preservation is an especially “attractive” option for the adepts to the cryogenization, but in economic terms, since the treatment of the skull only, reduces in approximately a 50% the costs, that In itself, they are not available to everyone. In subsequent chapters this controversial aspect will be deepened for many, and for those who maintain that cryogenization is only a business, it goes to the field of the outrageous.
The first hint that human life could be conserved for centuries – but without reference to methods – dates back to 1773, and was manifested in a letter by the renowned American scientist and politician Benjamin Franklin, inventor of the lightning rod.
From this consideration it was necessary to wait almost two centuries, until 1962, so that another member of the science, in this case, the professor of physics Robert Ettinger, proposed with absolute conviction that the man could be conserved and aspire to the “eternal life” to through the freezing of the body.
Ettinger presented his theory in what is still today, one of the main scientific references of cryogenization, the book “The Prospect of Immortality”. This form was financed by himself, but it served for the physicist to make it clear in his pages that the freezing of a body was not an end in itself, but also a method that would open the doors to future medical technology in several ways. Despite this theory, Ettinger clearly emphasized that perhaps today, by 1962, the freezing of a human being is seen as mortal, but tomorrow it could be reversible. When referring to the same clinical death, the scientist uses the same argument, affirming the clear possibility of reversibility of this “destiny of man”.

Trump Defends

“I am the least racist person to interview.”

This is what US President Donald Trump told journalists this Sunday, denying accusations of racism against him for allegedly saying that El Salvador, Haiti and African nations were “shithole countries” (shithole countries).

While resting at his Trump International Golf Club in West Palm Beach, his resort in Florida, the president addressed reporters: “I’m not racist.” “I’m the least racist person you’ll interview.”

On Friday, Trump denied having made those controversial statements in a tweet. But this is the first time that the president responds directly to accusations of racism.

The dispute erupted last week after reports surfaced in the US media that during a meeting at the White House, Trump had asked: “Why are we having all these people here from” shit “countries? ?

According to information published Thursday by The Washington Post and the New York Times, cited by anonymous sources, Trump used this language in a meeting with Democratic and Republican senators to analyze a proposal for immigration reform that would benefit citizens of El Salvador, Haiti and African nations.

In recent weeks, the US government has been withdrawing Temporary Protected Status (TPS) for people of various nationalities currently living in the country.

Trump also allegedly said in that meeting that instead of granting temporary residence to citizens of countries affected by natural disasters, wars or epidemics, the US I should receive immigrants from countries like Norway.

The African Union demanded on Friday that the US president apologize after the alleged sayings, expressing his “shock, consternation and indignation” for the “clearly racist” comments.

UN Human Rights Spokesman Rupert Colville said at a press conference in Geneva: “There is no other word that can be used but racist, you can not label entire countries and continents as ‘shit’.”

The National Association for the Advancement of People of Color (NAACP) accused the president of falling “deeper and deeper into the hole of racism and xenophobia.”

Several Democratic representatives said they intend not to attend the president’s State of the Union speech later this month for his statements, accusing the president of racism.

On Friday, the president tweeted that the language he used at the meeting was “hard” but questioned the writing of the reports.

He also published another tweet in which he denied insulting the Haitians and accusing the Democrats of inventing it.

But Senator Dick Durbin said the accusations were true and that Trump had used a language “full of hate, vile and racist” during the meeting.


Several high-ranking Republican lawmakers at the meeting, including National Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen, said they do not remember Trump making the comment.

Another Republican senator who was there, Lindsey Graham, did not deny the sayings.

“After the president’s comments, I addressed him directly, and the president and everyone at the meeting knows what I said and how I feel,” he said.

Speaker of the House of Representatives, Republican Paul Ryan, said Donald Trump’s immigration statements were “very unfortunate” and “useless.”

When Trump was asked on Sunday if he considered that the comments had made it difficult to obtain an immigration agreement, Trump responded: “Have you seen what several senators said about my comments? They were not facts.”

Despite his denial, the US president has received harsh criticism from the countries alluded to, among others.

The Haitian government was “outraged and shocked” by statements that, “if true (…), would reflect a completely mistaken and racist view of the Haitian community and its contribution to the United States.”

The Government of El Salvador announced that it had sent a protest note to the United States and demanded “respect” for Salvadoran citizens.

The African Union (AU), which brings together 55 states and several governments of that continent, labeled as “racist” the comments attributed to Trump.

A spokeswoman of the UA indicated that, even though the agent chief executive has denied them, they do not stop being “worrisome” because “there is a pattern of declarations and previous acts”.

In addition, ambassadors to the UN from 54 African countries demanded an apology from Trump for the “racist” comments he expressed on Thursday.

They also condemned the “scandalous, racist and xenophobic” comments of the ruler, and claimed to be “concerned about the continuing and growing trend within the US government towards Africa and towards people of African descent denigrating the continent and people of color.”

The Evolution of the Human Being

When We Talk About Evolution We Think About Changes, In Improvements, Even In Technology, But Now We Will Talk About The Evolution The Human Being Has Had In The Fas Of The Earth.

As far as we know and seen from a scientific point and with “rational explanations” man is part of the evolution of this world in which we live and come from monkey.

In a general way, we can say that there is a common trunk between the great apes or anthropoid primates (pongidos) and humans (hominids). At some point, these two families would form and evolve in different directions: The pongids would give origin to the gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, etc., as soon as the Hominids would give formation, through a long evolution (austrolipithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo neanderthal) to originate homo sapiens, current man.

Human beings have always not worried about the knowledge of our evolution. We can consider the evolution of man as the process of transformation that we have undergone from our first ancestors (ancestors) to modern man. In short, the explanation of how we have evolved.

To know our ancestors we have to know that we belong to the genus Homo (Homo = Human) and from there our first ascenders start.

The origin of the great family of hominids starts at the point of separation between our evolutionary line and that which leads to chimpanzees, our closest relatives, approximately 7 million years ago and precisely there are the first homos.

Reconstructing the history of the evolution of the complete man from the first homo to our days is an almost detective task that involves paleontologists, geneticists, ecologists, geologists, engineers, mathematicians and from which every day we know more data.

The different human species had brains of different sizes that endowed the human being with the necessary intelligence to build substitutes for the lack of corporeal defenses, such as shelters for the cold, weapons for defense and hunting or rooms for refuge. But this process of learning and transmission of knowledge was not continuous or homogeneous, so it took thousands of years before the human species could make complex cultural features, such as articulated language, writing, the use of metals or religious thought .

At the moment when human beings were able to avoid catastrophes through prudence, foresight and skill, a new force began to function in the selection process, something very similar to what is called human intelligence

Speech is not possible without very specific anatomical structures of the mouth and throat. The larynx is in a much lower position in humans than in other primates, which determines our ability to produce much clearer non-nasal sounds. The distance between the larynx and the nostrils makes it possible to emit certain sounds with strength and clarity, especially the vowels such as “i” and “u”.

At birth, babies have their larynx in a very high position, so they can suck and breathe at the same time. At 18 months the child’s larynx descends and allows him to make sounds of language but more danger of suffocation. So, by acquiring bipedalism to move, we gain having more back pains and difficulties in childbirths, and when we acquire speech we gain an increased risk of dying from choking, and this is not nonsense, many children and adults have deceased for this cause. If talking is such a big risk then the pressure in favor of that adaptation must have been very high.

Throughout human evolution, so many changes have happened that sometimes we find them surprising.

Such is the way of life of the ancestoric and eocénicas forms, which has imposed some evident peculiarity to all the systematic group: the locomotion is plantigrade; hands and feet are prehensible to increase safety in trees; the nails, totally or partially flat, which helps hold tiny objects

The Proconsul is a genus of the lower Miocene, perhaps representing three species of which we know quite a lot. The members and the scapular waist correspond to an animal that practices the prehensile location of the hands, but has not specialized in this way.

In any case, it is true that hominins derived from forms that practiced prehensile use of their hands, as evidenced by the structure of their shoulder girdles, the shape of the thorax, the orientation of the femurs with respect to the spine, and, according to an old idea of ​​Darwin, also the various flumina pilorum, that is, the orientation of the hairs along the limbs and trunk.

On the other hand, the ancestors of the hominids could not have no prehensile very specialized, since in recent years the relationship between the mass of the arms and the legs is inverse to that in the póngidos and hilobáticos, and the hand retains a very generalized structure. The evolution of man according to Charles Darwin On the return of his trip he married and compiled the notes of the trip, which he published between 1840 and 1843 with the title “Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle”. In 1851 he also published a valuable study on the cirripeds (a subclass of marine crustaceans). But it was not until 1859 that he published the book he had been working on since his return almost twenty years ago: “The origin of the species.” The book contains an explanatory theory of evolution, called Darwinism, based on numerous observations, and that from the moment of its publication supposed the immersion of Charles Darwin in the ongoing debates, criticisms and confrontations with many scientists. In “The Origin of Man “, published in 1871, defended the theory that the evolution of man starts from an animal similar to the monkey. The religious authorities qualified him as an atheist and a blasphemer.




The aspect of greatest relevance for the maintenance of the ambulatory is to keep it in safe, efficient and minimizing economic resources, preventing damage or repairing them, based on established processes and a program developed and evaluated on a monthly basis, in order to guarantee optimum quality in the physical environment for the safe performance of internal customers who find opportunity in requesting service, compliance in preventive maintenance, information during corrective maintenance, service reliability, integral service, sense of belonging.

For this purpose, some records were implemented in which management indicators were obtained in order to determine the fulfillment of goals or establish the improvement plan in case of not reaching said goals.

In this way, the Rural Outpatient Type II, develops actions tending to ensure the efficient and continuous operation of environments, facilities, equipment, through prevention, conservation and improvement thereof, in order to achieve greater useful life, safety of operation and economy in costs. In this sense, the maintenance comes to have connotation, when it is kept in continuous operation, reliable, safe, economic all the facilities, buildings and equipment that the institution has for the provision of health care to the community.



  • Optimize security, integrity and quality at minimum cost.
  • Preserve the functions of physical assets to avoid, eliminate or minimize the consequences that failures may generate in them.
  • Obtain information to develop adequate and successful maintenance strategies.
  • Counteract the effects of moisture on the walls of the building
  • Improve the condition of the roof of the building.



It is a simple ambulatory 17.00 meters long by 12.00 meters wide sectional plan rectangular. It is divided into two (02) modules, the first consisting of the room located at the entrance to the ambulatory where there are usually chairs for the comfort of patients, the dental office, and a general assistance office which has an independent bathroom , this module measures 10.20 meters long by 5.20 meters wide.

The second environment is composed of the reception where patients proceed to present their needs which they want to be attended, presents two multiple use offices where they are often vaccinated and consultations are made to people as minor problems, an office that time is the warehouse where all the medicines and instruments of vital importance for the operation of the health center are stored and protected, and the emergency room for exceptional cases that require immediate attention, of dimensions 8.00 meters wide by 10, 20 meters long; to its time it has two (02) bathrooms of 1.80 meters by 1.50 meters wide, they have a WC and sinks respectively.

Between both modules is a corridor that separates them from 2.00 meters wide, which is not protected against climate changes, like the backyard that is in total abandonment this measures 2.90 wide by 10.20 in length.

The roof of each module of the ambulatory is two (02) waters with tongue and groove roof, Creole tile and asphalt mantle. At the present time it was possible to determine that the roof undergoes tile shedding and deterioration of the asphalt mantle, for which reason it is necessary the removal of the tiles and the asphalt mantle and the placement of the same. In relation to the internal walls it is observed detachment of the painting and friezes, reason why it is necessary to ring part of the affected area, to frieze again and to paint all the internal walls. With regard to the external walls, only the painting works are required, as well as the covering of the windows and the main door.

In the internal part, perimeter walls are covered with ceramic at 1.40 meters of the total height of each wall, which are deteriorated, so it is necessary to remove the existing ceramic and re-coat the walls with porcelain that the entire floor of the building.

For this, the following activities are scheduled to take place:

  • Replica of friezes to receive finish
  • Repicado of Floors and Walls for Coating Placement
  • Removal of Clay Tiles
  • Hand Loading Material from Demolitions or Site Preparation
  • Non-Urban Transportation in Trucks, Land, Aggregates and Debris. Measured in a loose state at distances greater than 5 km and up to 10 km inclusive
  • Waterproofing in Inclined Roofs of Wood with Asphalt Membrane and Polyester Reinforcement E = 4 Mm Not Adherido in Warm with Torch and Finished with Creole Clay Tiles.
  • Construction of floor and wall cladding with porcelain. Includes Base Mortar
  • Construction of Wall Covering with Lime-based Mortar, Smooth Finish, Includes Base Friso.
  • Painting in Walls
  • Enamel Paint on Metal Doors
  • Enamel Paint in Windows and Metal Bars
  • Enamel Paint in Metallic Frames with Epoxy Paint
  • Variation in prices, estimated based on ten (10%) percent of the amount obtained for the costs generated by the aforementioned activities.

The scheduled time to execute this maintenance plan according to the aforementioned activities and according to what is established in the physical execution schedule, a period of one (01) month has been estimated.

Information gathering technique






According to the web portal ( indicates that the checklist is a tool that can be used to systematically observe a process by occupying a list of closed questions. The leader of the Work group, manager or area manager can through the use of this tool, analyze the problems or find out if the solution to a problem has been implemented properly and is providing the expected results.

A checklist can also be used to verify if a process has consistency based on the flowchart of the same. It is suggested to use this tool when you want to make sure that the different service providers inside and outside the organization are complying with the established standards.

In the case of this research, it was used to determine the different faults that affect the Type II La Pedregosa Rural Outpatient Clinic according to the thesis criteria.




It is a technique of collecting information that involves an interrogation in which the questions established in advance are always presented in the same order and are formulated with the same terms, with the aim that a second researcher can repeat it following the same steps. say, it has a systematic nature. It is a form of survey characterized by the absence of the interviewer.

For this type of research a questionnaire with a format of closed answers was used for people not specialized in the area.




For Hernández, Fernández and Baptista (1998) “validity in general terms refers to the degree to which an instrument really measures the variable it wants to measure” (p.243)

The validation of this project was obtained through expert judgment, an activity that was reviewed in all the phases of the investigation, in order to submit the model to the consideration and judgment of experts of the subject in terms of Drafting and Methodology refers and thus facilitate the methodological assembly, both in form and substance, with the sole purpose of its evaluation and when considering it, make the corrections that may take place, in order to guarantee the quality and certainty of the model.


Data Analysis Techniques


For Cabrero (2003), quantitative studies tend to be highly structured, so that the researcher specifies the main characteristics of the design before obtaining a single data. On the contrary, the design of qualitative studies is more flexible; it allows and even stimulates the realization of adjustments, in order to take advantage of the information gathered in the early phases of its realization.

With the aforementioned it is determined that this research is of a qualitative nature, since the data was collected directly in the sites where the faults were generated, in a systematic way with different instruments at the convenience of the data collector.


Research limitations


So far there have been no limitations in the realization of the project.





This chapter is based on the presentation of the data obtained through the instruments designed for the study of the research, and to know which problem the rural ambulatory type 2 suffers from the stony one. The results show that people who live and work in the health center are not satisfied with the current state of it.

In the research, qualitative data collection instruments were used, such as a questionnaire and a checklist. In order to apply these elements, it was necessary to go directly to the site that is the axis of the research and take into account all the small details find in him. The questionnaire was applied to 15 people who work in the Type II La Pedregosa Rural Outpatient Clinic, through which they consulted the opinion of said persons when asked about each constructive element of said facilities.

The direct observation has allowed to appreciate the problem, being to his of great help for the investigation, allowing to differentiate the types of faults that presents the structure, as well as the roof and the facilities of the place

Next, we proceed to structure the information collected from the aforementioned mixtures and the data obtained through the execution of the research instruments and the tests carried out for their respective analysis and interpretation.










The maintenance plan allows the institution to have a record of all the aspects that concern the maintenance of the facilities and equipment by making a detailed list of the activities that need a good and the costs and time intervals to optimize its operation and facilitate the activities of the University.

Determination of possible solutions


Phase III: determination of possible solutions

Stage I: We proceeded to determine the possible solutions that must be made to solve the constructive problems that the construction of the rural ambulatory II La Pedregosa has, through the creation of a report where the techniques are established, and the necessary measures to be able solve the problems of each constructive element of the structure of the health center.


Phase IV: Proposal

Stage I: A corrective maintenance plan was drawn up corresponding to the labor, materials and techniques that should be used to repair the construction deficiencies of the stony type II rural outpatient clinic.

Stage II: A budget and the metric calculations of the health center were prepared.

Stage III: Delivery of the project.

Population and Sample




According to Hernández, Fernández and Baptista (2000), a population is the set of all the cases that agree with a series of specifications. In effect, the population or universe refers to the set for which the conclusions obtained will be valid: to the elements or units involved in the investigation. On the other hand, the sample is a representative subset of a universe or population.

Following this order of ideas, the population of this research is made up of the 15 people who live and work in the Type II La Pedregosa Rural Outpatient Clinic.




According to Sabino (2002), the sample is a part of the whole that we call the universe and that serves to represent it.

In this case, the research sample has the same characteristics of the population.


Techniques and Instruments of Data Collection


The investigation was carried out following a non-experimental model. This allows the researcher to approach the reality to know it, understand it and give answers to the questions and hypotheses that arise from the interaction between the subject and the object. Camacho (2006).

In order to obtain the necessary data for the study and based on the proposed research design, a series of instruments or techniques for collecting the information must be designed. According to Sabino, (2002), an instrument of data collection is, in principle, any resource that the researcher uses to approach the phenomena and obtain information from them.




Documentary Review


According to Arias (2006) it is a document review and registration technique that bases the purpose of the research and allows the development of the theoretical and / or conceptual framework, which is inscribed in the type of exploratory, descriptive, ethnographic, fundamental theory , but that approaches all investigative paradigm (quantitative, qualitative or both) as it makes contributions to the theoretical framework.

For the development of this research, the documentary sources were identified, which are represented by regulations, laws, regulations and decrees, and bibliographic information related to the topic, which can respond to the needs raised for the corrective maintenance plan in the construction of rural type II La Pedregosa outpatient clinic.


Direct observation


For Arias (1998) observation is an activity performed by a living being (humans, animals, etc.), which detects and assimilates the features of an element using the senses as main instruments. The term can also refer to any data collected during this activity as a research technique, consists in “seeing” and “hearing” the facts and phenomena that we want to study, and is used fundamentally to know facts, behaviors and collective behaviors.

For this research, the use of observation was applied. It should be noted that in any data collection technique, the researcher must define the objectives he pursues, determine his unit of observation, the conditions under which he will assume it and the behaviors that should be recorded. For this purpose, a checklist can be used to determine the problems that exist in the health center.


The survey


According to Kuby (2005), A survey is an observational study in which the researcher seeks to collect data by means of a previously designed questionnaire, without modifying the environment or controlling the process that is under observation (as it does in an experiment). The data is obtained by making a set of standardized questions addressed to a representative sample or to the total set of the statistical population under study, often composed of individuals, companies or institutional bodies, in order to know opinion states, characteristics or specific facts . The researcher must select the most convenient questions, according to the nature of the investigation.

Standards related to indicators

Index: It is the quantitative relationship between the goals planned, the objectives, the standards related to the indicators and the results achieved. (Zerpa 2005).


Input: Financial, material, human, technological and information resources that the organization must have or require to start the production process. (Wolf 2000).


Interpretation: It consists of specifying how the result of what has been measured or expressed quantitatively will be read. Also establish how it could be plotted for follow-up. (Segarra 2001).


Goals: Specific purposes or purposes to be achieved; In general, they entail the quantification of the expected results in a determined period, the goals must always be oriented to the realization of the mission and the objectives of the organization. (Flórez 2003).


Measurement: It is to determine an amount comparing it with another one. (Lugo 2001).


Objectives: Are the purposes or general purposes that organizations intend to achieve. (Flórez 2003).


Process: Activities, tasks and steps to be developed. (Arriaga 2005).


Painting: The paint is a fluid product that, applied on a surface in relatively thin layers, is transformed over time into a solid film that adheres to said surface, in such a way that it covers, protects and decorates the element on which has been applied. (Ferrer 2012).


Products: Goods or services that result from using the inputs and adding value through the processes. (Meyer 2010).


Useful life: it is the period during which it is expected to use an asset. (Albaladejo 2000).




Modality of the Investigation


The UPEL (1998) defines the feasible project as a study “that consists of the investigation, elaboration and development of a proposal of a viable operative model to solve problems, requirements or needs of organizations or social groups”. The proposal that defines it can refer to the formulation of policies, programs, technologies, methods or processes, which only make sense in the scope of their needs.

With the aforementioned, this proposal is a feasible project since a corrective maintenance plan will be carried out in the structure of the Type II Rural Outpatient Clinic, which would solve the problems of the same and may be executed when the community managers arrange it, but limiting itself to a theoretical study which is characterized by the development of a non-experimental investigation.


Kind of investigation


Méndez (2001), points out that the descriptive study identifies characteristics of the research universe, indicates forms of behavior and attitudes of the investigated universe, establishes concrete behaviors and discovers and verifies the association between research variables. The studies oriented to the verification of causal hypotheses can be defined as an explanatory study; that is, identification and analysis of the causes and their results.

According to Sabino (2002) in the field designs the data of interest are collected directly from reality, through the concrete work of the researcher and his team. Its undeniable value lies in the fact that through them the researcher can verify the true conditions in which their data have been obtained, making it possible to revise or modify them in case doubts arise regarding their quality.

Therefore, the present study is descriptive and field, since only the formulation of the corrective maintenance plan was carried out, based on the description of a series of activities that need to be executed with the purpose of improving the facilities in the building.


Research Procedure


In order to comply with the general objective and the specific ones planned in the study, stages of development have been established consisting of a series of activities that constitute the methodological phases that comprise the project.


Phase I: Documentary Investigation

Stage I: A bibliographic review was made where a review of a series of sources that refer to the subject of corrective maintenance, all the parameters and techniques that must be taken into account for their execution.


Phase II: Diagnosis

Stage I: The current conditions in which the structure of the rural outpatient clinic Type II La Pedregosa is found, to carry out this stage, it is necessary to review each constructive element of the ambulatory building.

Stage II: A checklist and a questionnaire were prepared, and will be applied to the staff members who work in the health center to diagnose the current conditions of the same.

Stage III: A planimetric survey of the building was carried out.

Stage IV: A photographic record of the building was made.

Quality certification

The guarantee or proof of a certain product made in Venezuela, that has fulfilled all the requirements and that has been subject to quality certification, is obtained through the acquisition of the Norven seal and its exhibition in a certain product means that it was prepared in accordance to the requirements of the Venezuelan committee of covenin industrial standards and under the rigorous tests and controls established in order to achieve optimum quality.

Covenin currently has an operational unit, represented in the direction of standardization and certification of quality control, which has inherence in the technical issues inherent to the information and application of the rules that guide the activities of standardization and quality control in Venezuela .

In this report, the following norms were used:

  • Venezuelan Industrial Standards Commission, COVENIN, Standards 3049-93 (2001) Maintenance. Definitions.
  • Venezuelan Commission for Industrial Standards, COVENIN, Standards 2256 (2001) Radiological Protection. Definitions.
  • Venezuelan Commission for Industrial Standards, COVENIN, Standards 2500-93 (2005) Manual for Evaluating Maintenance Systems in the Industry.


Variable System


In the descriptive research study, it is intended to clearly delimit the variables subject to be studied by reference to an empirical set. According to Hernández (2007) they define a variable as an object, process or characteristic that is present, or supposedly present, in the phenomenon that a scientist wants to study. Objects, processes or characteristics are called variables insofar as their modification causes a modification in another object, process or characteristic. The main variables that research in psychology usually refers to may be independent and dependent.




Dependent variable


Hernández (2007) defines that the Dependent Variable is the one that refers to the changes suffered by the subjects as a consequence of the manipulation of the independent variable by the experimenter. In this case the name says it explicitly, it will depend on something that makes it vary. The dependent variables are the ones that are measured.

The dependent variable in this case refers to the building of the ambulatory since it depends on the corrective maintenance plan to enable rehabilitation.


Independent variable


Hernández (2007) define that the independent variable is the phenomenon to which its ability to influence, influence or affect other variables will be evaluated. It is that characteristic or property that is supposed to be the cause of the phenomenon studied. In experimental research, it is called the variable that the researcher manipulates. That are manipulated experimentally by a researcher.

The independent variable in this case refers to the corrective maintenance plan, since it does not depend on any other factor to be executed.


Definition of Basic Terms.


Finishes: It is known as finishes, coatings or coatings to all those materials that are placed on a black work surface, to finish the works, leaving it with a habitable aspect. In other words, they are the final materials that are placed on floors, walls, soffits, roofs, holes or openings like windows, doors of a construction. (Ferrer 2012).


Concrete: it is a material of construction of high resistance constituted basically of water, cement and sand. (Albaladejo 2000).


Community: Community is a group or group of individuals, human beings, or animals (or any other type of life) that share common elements, such as a language, customs, values, tasks, world view, age, location geographic (a neighborhood for example), social status and roles. (Pérez 2001).


Data: Numerical information of a characteristic, which does not add value. (Rojas 2004).


Efficacy: Are those that only measure the fulfillment of the objective regardless of the excess costs or waste of the process. That is, the goal was met, the rest does not matter. (Zerpa 2005).


Efficiency: They are indicators that measure the fulfillment of objectives taking into account the resources that imply such compliance. That is, the goal was met with the best use of resources. (Zerpa 2005).


Friezes: The frieze of a room is the part of the wall on the molding for pictures and under the crown molding or the cornice. A frieze is a long decorative band painted, sculpted or even calligraphy in that place, above the level of the eyes. Decorative friezes can represent scenes in a sequence of separate panels. The material from which the frieze is made can be plaster, carved wood or some other decorative medium. (Ferrer 2012).

Hospital and Ambulatory Care

Article 6. The Head of the Sanitary District shall communicate in writing to the Regional Directorate of the National Health System, Office of the Sanitary Comptroller, the granting of the operating permit of the Establishment with its number and date, attaching the Registration Form for Medical-Care Establishments . The aforementioned office will request the Directorate of Regulation and Control of Materials, Equipment, Establishments and Health Professions, to carry out the corresponding National Registry, which will be communicated to the Head of the Health District and the interested party.

Article 7. They are the duties of the Directors of the Medical Establishments

Hospitable and Outpatient Care:

  1. a) Create and maintain an office for the conservation and management of clinical records and reports of auxiliary tests that are practiced on patients, in those Hospital Establishments and in the outpatient clinics with observation of patients for a maximum period of twelve (12 ) hours. This office must have specialized technical and auxiliary personnel, according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance.
  2. b) Keep a daily record of patients attended ambulatory indicating the causes, treatments received, interventions performed and final results of the service provided.
  3. c) Keep updated a daily record of surgical and obstetric procedures performed in those facilities that offer these services with the identification of patients attended, type of research and results of surgical interventions and in the obstetric case, the data referring to the product of the delivery or cesareans.
  4. d) Maintain the minimum and indispensable provision in the establishments with Emergency Room and Critical Medicine for the assistance of the cases that may arise, according to the norms of the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance.
  5. e) Enforce environmental hygiene standards and current provisions on liquid and solid, pathological and biological rights.
  6. f) Communicate to the health authorities thirty (30) days in advance,

The suspension, modification or opening of Services whose pre-projects have been approved by the Committee of Programs of Medical Sanitary Buildings the corresponding operating permit.

Social, which authorizes you to exercise your activities.

Article 9. Once the requirements demanded in the previous article have been met by the interested party, the Head of the Sanitary District, with the approval of the Regional Authority, will proceed to grant him the operating permit for a period not exceeding two (2) years. , which may be renewed through an act motivated by the Health Authorities.

Article 10. The head of the Sanitary District shall inform the office of the Sanitary Comptroller’s Office of the granting of the operating permit indicating its number and date, attaching the respective registration form. The aforementioned office will request the Directorate of Regulation and Control of Materials, Equipment, Establishments and Health Professions to carry out a corresponding national registry, which will be communicated to the Head of the Sanitary District and the interested party.

Article 17. The Sanitary Authorities will practice at least one (1) time a year inspections to each of the Health Establishments according to the form established for that purpose.

Article 18. The infractions of the “regulation on hospitalization clinics, hospitals, health houses, Nursing or similar” and of these norms, will be sanctioned according to what is established in the laws and regulations on the sanitary matter, without prejudice to the fact that they are applied sanctions established in other laws.

Article 20. As of the publication of this resolution in the Official Gazette, those establishments that do not comply with these regulations have a period of ninety (90) business days to comply with its provisions.

Article 21. Resolutions that contain standards that adhere to this Resolution are repealed.

The organic health law deals with all those rules that these types of institutions must follow to maximize their functioning COVENIN standards


The Venezuelan Industrial Standards Commission COVENIN emerged from the establishment of standardization in the country in 1958.

This commission is a collegiate body that advises the Ministry of Development and that is integrated by the elements of the public and private sectors.